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Feb 08

The Need of The Fifth Generation (5G) for Telecommunication Technology

The world is already enjoying their high-speed data connection because of the 4G
Technology deployment. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Internet-Protocol Television
(IPTV) or often mentioned as High-Definition Television (HDTV), and high speed
broadband internet become the common facilities that can be obtained using the 4G
technology. We should say a lot of gratitude to the inventor of OFDM technology, MIMO
technology, and turbo iterative decoding as the key technologies of 4G so the Integrated
Multimedia Services (IMS) or the IP Triple Play (Broadband IP, VoIP, IPTV) is not just a
dream anymore.

 

The deployment of 4G over the world enforce the telecommunication business to
growth faster and gain so much profit. This make sense that people would say
telecommunication industry become the sexiest business in this century. Unfortunately, the
expertise just discovered some serious problems laying behind the sweet reality. There are
at least three major problem to be solved before we can reach the higher level of
telecommunication technology.

 

First, the number of gadget will increase exponentially and all of them will invoke
the same requirement to the telecommunication services provider : uninterruptible data
connection. Wireless telecommunication process and networks rely on a scarce and
precious resource that is frequency spectrum. Currently, wireless communications is
regulated by fixed frequency spectrum assignment regulation because the frequency
spectrum is divided to many small-range parts based on the function of particular systems
(bandwidth assignment). People may say that the problem has already solved by the
combination of MIMO-OFDM (Multiple Inputs – Multiple Outputs and Orthogonal
Frequency Divison Multiplexing) technology. This technology provide the access of highspeed
data rate and only require half of the bandwidth that needed by the previous
telecommunication technology, SISO-FDM (Single Input – Single Output and Frequency
Division Technology). If you consider the growth of user is exponentially then the half
efficiency is not enough.


Second, the power problems. With easy thought, we can conclude that the
increment of user number will affect to higher power consumption. One more time, people
may say that the problem is already solved by the turbo iterative decoding. I won’t explain
the algorithm or the system deeply but with the implementation of turbo iterative decoding,
we can reach a dramatically very low BER (Bit Error Rate) in the environment with low
SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio). We can access a very high data rate communication with low
power consumption. One more time, if you consider the growth of user is exponentially
then the lower power consumption is still needed for a green technology.
Third, identity assignment problem. Every user have their own unique identity, and
at this moment we assign every gadget with unique number. But, if the amount of gadget in
this world growth rapidly, how many digits of number will we assign for every gadget. The
4G technology has already provide adressing using IPv4. IPv4 is using 32 digits of binary
number. It means the maximum combination that IPv4 can accomodate is 232 unique
address. We still have no idea wether the ammount of 232 will enough to accomodate the
number of user in the future or not.

 

Every problem that presented already have the proposed solution. First, the
bandwidth limitation. The problem can be solved by the cognitive radio networks.
Cognitive radio networks are still in a very early stages of research and development.
Cognitive radio networks refers to the capability of reconfugiring themselves based on the
surrounding environment and their own properties. The properties include spectrum
allocation, traffic load, congestion situation, network topologies, and wireless channel
propagation. The functions provide by cognitive radio networks is spectrum sensing,
power control, and spectrum management. Based on the functions, the cognitive radio
networks is able to detecting unused spectrum and sharing it without harmful interference
to other users. Cogniteve radio networks should decide on the best spectrum band from all
of band available to meet QoS requirement. The implementation will bring us to 100%
efectiveness of frequency spectrum utilization.

 

Second, the power problem. The problem is solved by the number of the user,
because this technologies depend on the existance and cooperation of UE (user terminal).
The technology is cooperatif relay for wireless communications. The concept is every
mobile terminal will act as a repeater and regenerator for each other so it is not a necessity
for a mobile terminal to transmit signal with high power for reaching the celluler network
base station. Also, with this technology a celluler network base station can extend their
network coverage without extend their power transmission.

 

Third, the identity assignment problem is solved by IPv6. Compared to IPv4 the
most obvious advantage of IPv6 is its larger address space. IPv4 are 32 bits long and
numbers 232 identity. IPv6 adresses are 128 bits long and numbers 2128 identity. IPv6’s
adressess are deemed enough for the foreseeable future. The other advantage from IPv6 are
network layer security, mobility, and privacy.

 

The implementation of the cognitive radio networks, cooperative relay, and IPv6
will bring us to the higher level of telecommunication technology. The future
telecommunication is not about high speed data rate because it’s already provided by the
present telecommunication technology. The next one is about realibiliies, high mobility,
and green technology. When we reach those level, we could say that we reach the fifth
generation of telecommunication technology (5G). The next big question is, as a college
student, how can we contribute for this rapid technology development?

karya : Daryus Chandra, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Juara 2 ESSAY COMPETITION 2012, IEEE SB UGM.

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